2012-10-11

The Spread of Mobile Learning



Formal mobile learning (m-learning) is not widespread, yet.

Informal m-learning is as pervasive as mobile communication devices (MCDs). If someone uses a MCD to search for an answer or information on the web or other network, m-learning is taking place.

A very few boring statistics

It is claimed 77% of the world’s population owns a MCD. Even if this is a hefty 33% over estimation, it still means over half the world’s population has a MCD.

In some African countries, almost every student owns a MCD, but very few own a computer.

Android is king in the EU, USA, and Australia. Apple accounts for 16% of sales in the EU, while Samsung have 45% of the market as of the date of this post.
So, how useful can m-learning be in learning?


Consider, how often do you use your MCD, or see others use their MCD, to access on-line information? I think we can all agree the answer is somewhere in the region of ‘very useful indeed’. The next question must be ‘what can we (teachers/trainers) do to take advantage of the benefits presented by m-learning?

Real examples of students putting m-learning into action with MCDs

  • Living in regional areas with access to limited public transport use MCD to download study guides;
  • Working ‘in the field’ download readings and journals for review to support ‘professional’ practice, or listen to audio formats whilst driving to ‘work’;
  • Attending via Distance Learning. Select from a list of prescribed texts by reading samples on-line, then purchase the chosen eBook, which is conveniently to-hand at all times;
  • Students with families. Access complete ‘set readings’ on-line and, podcasts of lectures;
  • Use Digital Object Management System (DOMS) to access resources posted by staff and students. Links to DOMS resources are easily shared;
  • Access e-learning and chat with other students in real time;
  • Update e-Portfolio and add details of any emergent/unintentional learning;
  • Use MCD to take photos of geo-tagged pictures from study guides (e.g. plants identified ‘in the field’) and upload later to discuss with peers thereby supporting contingent learning (reacting to environment/experience) and situational learning (‘in the field’);
  • Studying arts subjects, whilst out-and-about, can share photos via, e.g. Flickr, make comments, and discuss progression. Context Aware learning is strongly supported;
  • Access educational games designed to explain complex ideas in a way that removes the barriers that often appear when a student encounters one of those ‘I just don’t get it’ topics;
  • Respond to classroom/virtual classroom polls then discuss why particular options are favoured over others. The subject matter immediately becomes relevant;
  • Use Twitter to engage in live discussions with remote ‘class mates’. The character limitation requires participants to effectively and concisely express opinions;
  • Share experiences ‘in the field’ and engage in discussion via a blog, thus supporting authentic learning (meaningful learning tasks related to learning goals);
  • Use a dedicated Fresher Facebook page to get to know and support other students through the first weeks;
  • Use SMS to share information about new on-line resources where internet services may be less reliable;
  • Use Web Application Clients to aggregate and share content in one central location, allowing students to use familiar tools to gain access (personalised learning);
  • Submit on-line multiple choice tests and receive immediate feedback;
  • Access assessment materials on-line and submit comments for feedback by students and staff;
  • Access on-line support tools, information, and interactive tutorials from anywhere at any time;
  • During the Fresher period, Kindles pre-loaded with required text books, guides to academic practices, references, campus maps, and so on, can be borrowed.

Remember, whatever works for the student/learner can also work for the teacher/trainer.

What does this mean for the ‘student/teacher’ relationship?

Some argue m-learning and the use of social networking in learning will transform the ‘student/teacher’ relationship beyond recognition. The premise being the weight of responsibility for learning will shift dramatically from the ‘teacher’ to the ‘learner’.

Such a proposition is overly simplistic. There is no doubt the relationship will evolve and adapt, but it must not be allowed to be transformed as some have advocated. My argument is best summarised as 'why do children need parents?'

Mobile learning is not new, quite the contrary. Mobile learning was almost certainly one of the earliest methods of knowledge and skill transfer. Long before schools came into being masters and their apprentices would roam, discovering, practicing, sharing, and debating. In fact, the ‘traditional’ concept of learning, a classroom containing a whiteboard, a teacher, and a class, is very new. It has existed, for the masses, for less than 100 years.

What is different about m-learning in the digital on-line age is not the fact the master teaches and directs, and the apprentice attends and explores, it is how the roles are manifest. M-learning will not just turn back the educational practice clock to (the modern equivalent of) a master/apprentice relationship, it will do so, not on a one-to-one basis in real time, but on a many-to-many basis in real time, without regard for distance or the relative location of the master and the apprentice, for the first time in human history.

Of equal importance is the capacity of supportive technologies to:
  • Convert, what has always been unintentional, contingent, situational, and authentic learning (but transient and vulnerable) into recordable, shareable, submit-able, and media rich ‘evidence’;
  • Enable access to formal and informal sources in support of learning from anywhere in the world, at any time.

We are living in very exciting times promising almost magical opportunities to ‘teacher’ and ‘learner’ alike, never before experienced. But let us keep our composure. Remember ‘Gartner’s Hype Cycle’, let us learn from the mistakes of the past.

The future’s bright. The future’s... m-learning (but it needs to be ADC).

What about evaluation?

Teachers/trainers can use on-line resources to seek feedback from students about subject delivery and coverage. This helps do identify where the teacher/trainer needs to focus more effort to ensure understanding. Such systems also identify what works well and why.

Students/learners can use their MCDs like ‘clickers’ to provide feedback in-class or from remote locations. Notifications can be sent by ‘teachers’ regarding evaluation activities. The student is able to respond immediately, which improves participation, and can expedite remedies.

Of course, the technology means that not only can students/teachers evaluate learning/teaching, students can evaluate each other.

Points to consider


  • Not everyone has access to MCDs, but they can be provided.
  • Need to be aware of phone number identification where anonymous participation is required.
  • M-learning integrates well with blended and flexible learning.
  • Real vs mediated communication?
  • Use of ‘mobile’ language is not always acceptable.
  • Variable web access and platforms (Apps vs Proprietary OS vs Open Source vs broadband/satellite network availability vs mobile phone network availability).
  • Is it just a fad (Gartner’s Hype Cycle).
  • Mobile security;
  • Currently, mobile browsers are not too clever, and MCD’s are not true computers;
    Supportive software. Don’t forget, e.g. QR codes in the workplace can support learning access.

What about the Future

The age of the computer (as known since the 1970s) is coming to an end. The rule of the mobile phone is also on its last legs.

“You must be delusional!” I hear you call. Please, humour me...

A pivotal event in human history was the advent of the printed word, the eventual democratisation of knowledge. However, this democracy had limitations. The learner must be where the books are kept, and the learned reside.

I suggest we are now standing at the next pivotal moment in human history. It was not the advent of the computer or the mobile phone, it is the two combined with a third vital ingredient, MOBILITY.
For the first time in human history the world’s knowledge exists wherever you are right now as you read this blog. One in seven humans is already ‘connected’. It will not be long before the inter-net finally satisfies its name in a literal sense, an interconnected-network of the human race with access to the sum of human knowledge and experience, but more, the ability to communicate and organise. This is very dangerous.

For millennia, governments have determined what people will worship, what they will know, what they are allowed to do, and what they will believe to be the truth. It is still true today, in your country and mine. I don’t care where you live, how free you think you are, it is true.

Governments were too slow to impose total control of the printed word. They are far more fleet-of-foot today. You will certainly be aware of recent attempts by governments to control the internet in the name of ‘national security’, ‘the war on terror’, ‘protecting interests abroad’ Legislation that can also be used against you to protect the state’s hold on power. They will not give it up without a fight.

“For god’s sake stop ranting, what has this to do with mLearning?” I am glad you asked.

Everyone is asking “How do we use mLearning, how do we integrate social networking, blogging?” The list goes on. IT DOES NOT MATTER.

The first thing we need to do is ensure the opportunities opening-up to us are not squandered and sacrificed at the alter of some deceitful and perverse political ideology. Keep abreast of planned legislation and scrutinise it. Consider the implications not described, assume it seeks to control you, and support calls to action.

If you are not sure how to tell if your politicians are lying, just look to see if their lips are moving.

2012-10-02

Making the Web Faster

It's all in the 'oblique' action (i.e. '/' (aka forward-slash))

You can make a difference to the speed of the web. Really!

If everyone who can, takes note of this blog, the web will really work more quickly, and it's very easy.

URLs and Oblique

Have you ever noticed, if you copy a domain, e.g. http://www.autarkik.com

and then paste it into your browser, the domain becomes http://www.autarkik.com/

The same works if you copy http://www.autarkik.com/elearning and then paste, you get http://www.autarkik.com/elearning/

Why?

http://www.autarkik.com/ and http://www.autarkik.com/elearning/ are directories, and web servers require web directory URLs to end with '/'.

How?

When you type or paste, e.g. http://www.autarkik.com/elearning the server looks for a file with the same URL. When it doesn't find one, it looks for a directory. When it finds a directory with the same URL, the server effectively executes a redirect and adds a '/' to the end of the URL and then goes to the directory and returns the index document.

So Where is the Saving?

The server needs to look twice for the URL if you omit the trailing '/'. If you include the trailing '/' for domains and directory URLs you are reducing the number of look-ups by 50%. If everyone who uses the web includes the trailing '/' every time they should, then tens of millions of look-ups will not be necessary, every day.

That's how you can make the web faster :-)